Intro to One-Foot Turns:
One-Foot turns are ‘all the technical difficulties [travelings, three turns, brackets, loops, counters and rockers] … that involve a change of direction on the same foot’ (World Skate, 2019a).
I believe that there are 4 main aspects of a one-foot turn, which help us identify their similarities and differences
- Change of Direction: When thinking about a turn, we need to determine whether the turn itself results in a change of direction i.e. forwards to backwards or backwards to forwards.
- Change of Edge: Some, but not all, one-foot turns will result in a change of edge i.e. inside to outside or outside to inside.
- Cusp: The cusp of a turn is defined by World Skate in their General Rulebook as ‘the two small curves comprising the deviation from the arc and the point of intersection of any one-foot turn’. Basically this means that the cusp occurs in the middle of the turn at the rotation point where the employed skate will deviate either inside or outside of the “arc” or circle. This deviation will naturally create these “two small curves” as the employed skate rotates to change the direction and/or edge, thus creating a cusp.
- Rotation: The direction of rotation is probably the hardest concept when learning the difference between one-foot turns. What this refers to is the direction that the skater will rotate around their body axis, and is in reference to the initial edge or entry edge of the turn.
Note: Body axis is ‘the imaginary line that passes vertically through the centre of the body’ (Locandro, 2018, p.13)
The 6 One-Foot Turns:
|Change of Direction||✔️||✔️||✔️||✔️||❌||❌|
|Change of Edge||✔️||✔️||❌||❌||❌||❌|
*Rotation is in relation to the initial edge i.e. same or counter to the direction of initial edge.
Note: a Traveling itself must comprise of two full rotations performed quickly to avoid edges or cusps during rotation which would result in the traveling being viewed as multiple three turns. Traveling Sequences may incorporate Traveling ‘sets’ which may depending on the level include more than two revolutions or an exit half revolution, however for the purpose of this tutorial we are referring to the individual basic requirements that constitute a traveling being a one-foot turn. As a result, the traveling will have no overall change of direction (i.e. enter forwards and exit forwards or vice versa), or a change of edge. Whilst a traveling my be performed with an entry and exit edge present, in order to perform this turn correctly there must be no edges or cusps during the turn itself, resulting in the potential entry and exit edge being irrelevant when distinguishing this one-foot turns individual properties.
Once these 4 concepts are understood in relation to the six different one-foot turns, it becomes much easier for a coach, skater or spectator to distinguish between turns presented in either footwork sequences or figures.
In my next blog, we will be discussing each of the six individual one-foot turns in depth to highlight their specific characteristics.
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Locandro, S. (2018). Artistic roller skating. Free skating. Volume 1. Gianico, SB: Litos Edizioni
World Skate. (2019a). Rules for Artistic Roller Skating Competitions Free Skating 2020 Retrived from
World Skate. (2019b). Rules for Artistic Roller Skating Competitions General 2020 Retrived from http://www.worldskate.org/artistic/about/regulations/category/262-rule-books.html?download=3966:official-regulation-artistic-general-2020